A career is defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as an individual's "course or progress through life (or a distinct portion of life)". It is usually considered to pertain to remunerative work with formal education and training.
A job on the other hand is a specific piece of work usually done by agreement for pay. Little more than that in all honesty.
When careers are given to acolytes whose primary purpose is to massage the fragile egos of their managers - then the consequences can often be divisive and fuel resentment. Sinecures should have no place in the public sector. Jobs for the boys or girls indeed!